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This principles and guidelines presented by the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing to the UN Human Rights Council ‘focus on providing guidance to States on measures and procedures to be adopted in order to ensure that development-based evictions are not undertaken in contravention of existing international human rights standards and do not thus constitute “forced evictions”.’ Their aim is to provide a practical tool to assist States and agencies in developing policies, legislation, procedures and preventive measures to ensure that forced evictions do not take place, and to provide effective remedies to those whose human rights have been violated, should prevention fail.’ Basic principles and guidelines on development-based evictions and displacement.
UN Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons (Pinheiro Principles)
In August 2005 the UN Sub-Commission on the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights approved the Pinheiro Pinciples on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons. The principles tackle the effective implementation of housing, land and property restitution programmes and mechanisms. Pinheiro Principles
You can also take a look at the Handbook on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Discplaced Persons for the implementation of the Pinheiro principles.
The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea establishes a legal order for the seas and oceans. The main objectives of the Convention are:
1. Facilitate international communication,
2. Promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans,
3. The equitable and efficient utilization of the seas and oceans resources,
4. The conservation of their living resources,
5. The study, protection and preservation of the marine environment.
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
In 2002 the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights issued a General Comment on the right to water. According to its General Comment, states parties should, among others, take steps to ensure that rural and deprived urban areas have access to properly maintained water facilities and that access to traditional water sources in rural areas are protected from unlawful encroachment and pollution.
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 4 The right to adequate housing
In December 1991 the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted a General Comment on the right to adequate housing as established in article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In this General Comment, the Committee addresses the different dimensions of interpretation of the human right to adequate housing and its application.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
The Convention came into force on December 1996, 195 Parties have ratified the text. The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements, in the framework of an integrated approach, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and or Desertification Particularly in Africa
On July 2010, the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to water and sanitation while also acknowledging the importance of its”equitable access” and their essential role in the realisation of all human rights.
Moreover, States and international organizations were called upon to provide financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer, through international assistance and cooperation, in particular to developing countries,to scale up efforts to provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all.