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FAO: Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication
These Voluntary Guidelines (2014) were developes as a complement to the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The Guidelines provide complementary guidance with respect to small-scale fisheries in support of the overall principles and provisions of the Code. They are intended to support the visibility, recognition and enhancement of the already important role of small-scale fisheries and to contribute to global and national efforts towards the eradication of hunger and poverty. The Guidelines support responsible fisheries and sustainable social and economic development for the benefit of current and future generations, with an emphasis on smallscale fishers and fish workers and related activities and including vulnerable and marginalized people, promoting a human rightsbased approach. Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication.
In 1999, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a General Comment on the Right to Food. According to General Comment No. 12 the right to food implies three types of obligations – the obligations to respect, to protect and to fulfill:
-The obligation to respect existing access to adequate food requires States parties not to take any measures that result in preventing such access.
-The obligation to protect requires measures by the State to ensure that enterprises or individuals do not deprive individuals of their access to adequate food.
-The obligation to fulfill (facilitate) means the State must pro-actively engage in activities intended to strengthen people’s access to and utilization of resources and means to ensure their livelihood, including food security. Finally, whenever an individual or group is unable, for reasons beyond their control, to enjoy the right to adequate food by the means at their disposal, States have the obligation to fulfill (provide) that right directly. This obligation also applies for persons who are victims of natural or other disasters.
On April 2011, the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution reaffirming that ‘hunger constitutes an outrage and a violation of human dignity and therefore requires the adoption of urgent measures at the national, regional and international levels for its elimination’.
The HRC resolution manifests concern on the following issues: discrimination in the context of the right to food; ways and means to further advance the rights of people working rural areas; the relationship between severe malnutrition and childhood diseases; urban poor an their enjoyment of the rights to food; and rural women and their enjoyment of the right to food.
Resolution adopted by the Human Rights Council 16 27 on the Right to Food