Convention on Access to Information Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters
The Aarhus Convention was adopted in 1998 at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in the ‘Environment for Europe’ process. As of 16 January 2015 there were 47 Parties to the Convention.
The aim of the Convention is to contribute to the protection of the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being. Each Party to the Convention is called on to guarantee the rights of access to information, public participation in decision-making, and access to justice in environmental matters.
The objective of the The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is to contribute to ensure an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movement.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants was signed in 2001 with the objective of protecting human health and the environment from chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of humans and wildlife, and have harmful impacts on human health or on the environment.
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) was adopted on November 3 2001 by the Thirty-First Session of the Conference of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. The aim of this treaty is to establish a global system that provides farmers, plant breeders and scientists with access to plant genetic materials, and ensure that recipients share benefits that derive from the use of these genetic materials. The ITPGRFA also recognizes the contribution of farmers to the diversity of crops that feed the world.
On April 2011, the Human Rights Council adopted a resolution reaffirming that ‘hunger constitutes an outrage and a violation of human dignity and therefore requires the adoption of urgent measures at the national, regional and international levels for its elimination’.
The HRC resolution manifests concern on the following issues: discrimination in the context of the right to food; ways and means to further advance the rights of people working rural areas; the relationship between severe malnutrition and childhood diseases; urban poor an their enjoyment of the rights to food; and rural women and their enjoyment of the right to food.
Resolution adopted by the Human Rights Council 16 27 on the Right to Food
On July 2010, the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to water and sanitation while also acknowledging the importance of its”equitable access” and their essential role in the realisation of all human rights.
Moreover, States and international organizations were called upon to provide financial resources, capacity-building and technology transfer, through international assistance and cooperation, in particular to developing countries,to scale up efforts to provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all.
On March 2012, the UN General Assembly decided to declare the year 2014, the International Year of Family Farming. This UN resolution affirms that family farming and smallholder farming are an important basis for sustainable food production aimed at achieving food security and encouraged States in this respect, to undertake activities within their respective national development programmes. International Year of Family Farming, 2014
Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity
International agreement created with the aim of sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way. Entered into force on 12 October 2014. Nagoya Protocol
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) entered into force on 29 December 1993. It has 3 main objectives: The conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of the components of biological diversity and; the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. cbd-en
On 14 December 1962, via resolution 1803 (XVII), the General Assembly declared a series of principles on exploration, development and disposition of natural resources, nationalization and expropriation, foreign investment, the sharing of profits and others related to the sovereignty of peoples and nations over their natural wealth and natural resources and the duty of States and international organizations to strictly and conscientiously respect them. General assembly resolution 1803 (XVII) of 14 December 1962 Permanent soverignty over natural resources