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Category Archives: International law and policies
In 2002 the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights issued a General Comment on the right to water. According to its General Comment, states parties should, among others, take steps to ensure that rural and deprived urban areas have access to properly maintained water facilities and that access to traditional water sources in rural areas are protected from unlawful encroachment and pollution.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 24 on Women and health
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued in 1999 a General Recommendation on Article 12 (women and health) of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The Committee recommended that States implement a comprehensive national strategy to promote women’s health throughout their lifespan and allocate adequate budgetary, human and administrative resources.
In 1999, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a General Comment on the Right to Food. According to General Comment No. 12 the right to food implies three types of obligations – the obligations to respect, to protect and to fulfill:
-The obligation to respect existing access to adequate food requires States parties not to take any measures that result in preventing such access.
-The obligation to protect requires measures by the State to ensure that enterprises or individuals do not deprive individuals of their access to adequate food.
-The obligation to fulfill (facilitate) means the State must pro-actively engage in activities intended to strengthen people’s access to and utilization of resources and means to ensure their livelihood, including food security. Finally, whenever an individual or group is unable, for reasons beyond their control, to enjoy the right to adequate food by the means at their disposal, States have the obligation to fulfill (provide) that right directly. This obligation also applies for persons who are victims of natural or other disasters.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 23 on Women in political and public life
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued a General Recommendation on women in political and public life in 1997 at its sexteenth session.
The Committee encouraged States to take all approriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country and ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right to vote and to be eligible, to participate in the formulation of government policy and hold public office and other public functions, and to participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life. CEDAW General Recommendation No. 23 Political and Public Life
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 19 on Violence against Women
In 1992 the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued a General Recommendation on violence against women.
Referring to Article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Committee recommended that States parties should ensure that services for victims of violence are accessible to rural women and that where necessary special services are provided to isolated communities.
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 4 The right to adequate housing
In December 1991 the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted a General Comment on the right to adequate housing as established in article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In this General Comment, the Committee addresses the different dimensions of interpretation of the human right to adequate housing and its application.