In 1999, the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a General Comment on the Right to Food. According to General Comment No. 12 the right to food implies three types of obligations – the obligations to respect, to protect and to fulfill:
-The obligation to respect existing access to adequate food requires States parties not to take any measures that result in preventing such access.
-The obligation to protect requires measures by the State to ensure that enterprises or individuals do not deprive individuals of their access to adequate food.
-The obligation to fulfill (facilitate) means the State must pro-actively engage in activities intended to strengthen people’s access to and utilization of resources and means to ensure their livelihood, including food security. Finally, whenever an individual or group is unable, for reasons beyond their control, to enjoy the right to adequate food by the means at their disposal, States have the obligation to fulfill (provide) that right directly. This obligation also applies for persons who are victims of natural or other disasters.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 23 on Women in political and public life
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued a General Recommendation on women in political and public life in 1997 at its sexteenth session.
The Committee encouraged States to take all approriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country and ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right to vote and to be eligible, to participate in the formulation of government policy and hold public office and other public functions, and to participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life. CEDAW General Recommendation No. 23 Political and Public Life
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation No. 19 on Violence against Women
In 1992 the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women issued a General Recommendation on violence against women.
Referring to Article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Committee recommended that States parties should ensure that services for victims of violence are accessible to rural women and that where necessary special services are provided to isolated communities.
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 4 The right to adequate housing
In December 1991 the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted a General Comment on the right to adequate housing as established in article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. In this General Comment, the Committee addresses the different dimensions of interpretation of the human right to adequate housing and its application.
In 1989, the Human Rights Committee issued a General Comment on the right to non-discrimination under Article 26 of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR.
The General Comment starts by stating that the ICCPR obligates each State party to respect and ensure to all persons within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the Covenant without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. CCPR General Comment No. 18 Non-discrimination
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No. 7 The right to adequate housing: forced evictions
In 1997 the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights issued a General Comment in relation to Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. According to the Committee, the State must refrain from forced evictions and ensure that the law is enforced against its agents or third parties who carry out forced evictions. General Comment No 7 on the Right to Adequate Housing forced evictions
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
The Convention came into force on December 1996, 195 Parties have ratified the text. The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements, in the framework of an integrated approach, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and or Desertification Particularly in Africa
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemical and Pesticides in International Trade
The Rotterdam Convention was adopted on September 1998. The objective of this Convention is to promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm and to contribute to their environmentally sound use, by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics, by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to Parties.
Convention on Access to Information Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters
The Aarhus Convention was adopted in 1998 at the Fourth Ministerial Conference in the ‘Environment for Europe’ process. As of 16 January 2015 there were 47 Parties to the Convention.
The aim of the Convention is to contribute to the protection of the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being. Each Party to the Convention is called on to guarantee the rights of access to information, public participation in decision-making, and access to justice in environmental matters.